Friday, July 31, 2009

Pfizer Pays to Have Criminal Charges Dropped

Someone once said...yes...we live by the Golden Rule...."those with the gold, make the rules." Unfortunately, this is the case with Pfizer, the largest and wealthiest pharmaceuitical company in the world. In a story from the Washington Post, ten Pfizer executives and scientists avoid criminal charges for allegations of murdering African children by offering a "Pfizer Pot of Gold".

In 1996 Pfizer had instituted an illegal clinical trial in Nigeria using a dangerous drug called Trovan. Even when Pfizer in-house physician, Dr. Juan Walterspeil, had warned the Pfizer CEO that the trial was unethical, Pfizer terminated Walterspeil and moved ahead with the trial, resulting in many children permanently disabled and 11 children dead.

What was the price Pfizer paid to avoid sending the culprits to jail? $75 million.

Thursday, July 30, 2009

Dr. David Michaels Nominated as Fed-OSHA Head by Obama

Oh, the business lobbiest are in a boil over David Michaels nomation to head OSHA ... They just cannot tolerate anyone who has a record in taking a stand for public health and safety.

Professor nominated to position overseeing FedOSHA
By Alexandra Berzon (contact), Lisa Mascaro (contact)
Published Tuesday, July 28, 2009 2:06 p.m.
George Washington University professor David Michaels will be nominated as the assistant secretary of labor to run the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the White House said Tuesday.
Michaels, an epidemiologist, has been a notable advocate for workers to be compensated for health risks from chemicals and has also exposed attempts from businesses to block health regulations by making scientific research appear less certain than it is.
His nomination comes as the business lobby has made it clear it has no intention of allowing the Democrats’ labor agenda to advance without a fight.
Alongside its steady assault over the union-backed card check bill, the business community has turned its attention to one of the Obama administration’s labor-friendly nominees to the National Labor Relations Board.
This week, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce asked the Senate for a full hearing to vet Craig Becker, one of the president’s three nominees for the board that administers national labor law.
The chamber has been waging a multi-million-dollar campaign against the Employee Free Choice Act, the pro-union legislation that would make it easier for workers to organize. Unions have been waging an equally strong campaign in support of the bill.
For complete story go to this link.

Hungry for Embryonic Stem Cells?

No not Hungry…but Hungary…

and it appears that Hungary is not too happy about illegal use of embryonic stem cells in their country.

Hungary detains 4 over illegal stem cell treatment
29 Jul 2009 10:14:26 GMT
-->Source: Reuters
BUDAPEST, July 29 (Reuters) - Hungarian police have detained four people on suspicion of carrying out illegal, untested stem cell treatments using embryos or aborted fetuses at a Hungarian private clinic, police said in a statement.

The statement, posted on the official police website late on Tuesday, said the suspects -- two Hungarians, one U.S. and one Ukrainian citizen -- were detained on July 27 just as they were preparing to treat a new patient.

Police said they launched a procedure on "suspicion of a banned use of the human body."
"There is well-founded suspicion that a U.S. citizen called Julliy B. has carried out stem cell treatments for money within the framework of a Hungarian stem cell research laboratory and a Hungarian-owned private clinic since 2007," police said.

The Ukrainian suspect prepared the stem cell doses and patients generally paid $25,000 or 5 million Hungarian forints for a treatment, police said.

Police said the suspect gained the stem cells from embryos or aborted fetuses.
The doses had not been tested, and the suspects carried out the treatments without permission from Hungary's health authorities, police said in the statement.

Police carried out house searches and seized computers and documents.
Police officials declined to give further details beyond what was in the statement.
Stem cells are the body's master cells, the source of all cells and tissue, including brain, blood, heart, bones and muscles. Embryonic stem cells come from days-old embryos and can produce any type of cell in the body.

Scientists generally harvest embryonic stem cells from embryos left over after in vitro fertilization attempts at fertility clinics. (Reporting by Krisztina Than; Editing by Sonya Hepinstall) For link go here.

The Propaganda Psychogenic Illness Phenomenon: You Are Not Sick--You're Just Nuts--

The Psychogenic Illness Propaganda Phenomenon

Well, it’s happened in the United States with Morgellen and Lyme Disease sufferers and now it is happening in China.

It is the use of labeling people “psychogenic” in a propaganda effort to limit responsibility and shroud grave concerns concerning public health and safety issues.

Today a report in the NY times describes the use of this propaganda strategy when more than 1,300 employees at a textile mill in China fell ill with symptoms of convulsions, breathing difficulties, vomiting and temporary paralysis. See the NYtimes article here for details.

Wednesday, July 29, 2009

Injured Workers Denied Access to Decent Medical Care

Here is an interesting article from Dr. Ron Kienitz outlining the difficulties of injured workers in Hawaii to obtain medical care. The only issue missing in his article is that this is a problem in all states. Read the article below:

Injured workers need access to medical care

By Ron Kienitz

LAST Thursday was just about the last straw for me. Since our clinic is one of the few remaining that specializes in treating injured workers, we see work injuries on a daily basis. (We're owned by a chain of 300 such clinics throughout the country.) But an injured worker's good fortune in finding someone competent willing to treat them doesn't always end there. What happens when I need a specialist to take care of an emergency beyond my expertise?

Thursday, a welder came in for care of an ear injury. He'd been welding while lying on his side when a drop of molten metal slag fell into his ear canal, burned through his ear drum and lodged in the middle ear by the sensitive organs of hearing. Is the public aware that there is not an ear/nose/throat specialist on Oahu who is willing to take a workers compensation case? Trust me; we called. Imagine my frustration as I tried in vain to find a specialist to save this patient's hearing. And this was not an isolated incident. Try to find a neurosurgeon to consult on these cases, or a psychiatrist, or whatever specialty.

I am one of very few doctors remaining in Hawaii who will treat an injured worker. Then again, since my board certification is in occupational medicine, I pretty much have to. Does the public know what's going on here? Does anyone care that if they are injured at work or in a car accident, the chances are their own family doctor will refuse to treat them? The root cause for this is the poorly thought out action taken by legislators in 1995 when they slashed reimbursements by more than 54 percent to doctors treating workers compensation injuries. Then they tagged it to Medicare, which has further decreased reimbursements to doctors ever since. This same fee schedule is used for car accident injuries.

What with the sometimes outrageous administrative hassles that go along with taking these cases, more than two-thirds of Hawaii's doctors have gradually refused to take it anymore, and many more are on the verge of dropping out. Does the public know that the entire Straub Medical system now refuses to care for these cases? If your doctor is in the Straub system and you're injured at work, you're on your own to find treatment.

THE ORIGINAL reason for this legislative misadventure was to save money. As the workers compensation committee chairman for Hawaii Medical Society, I testified repeatedly and did my best to educate our legislators with data and research proving that it wouldn't work. We warned them that if you pay doctors so little that they lose money on each patient, the result will be delays in access to care, delays in treatment, longer overall case lengths, increased temporary indemnity costs and increased permanent injuries. All of this rapidly eats up the small savings they hoped to realize from pursuing their ignorant agenda. As a result, Hawaii now boasts the third-highest workers compensation costs in the nation!

It was no surprise to the Hawaii Medical Association as costs per case steadily rose in spite of this draconian approach. What is surprising is that despite repeatedly going back to the Legislature asking that they correct their mistake, they have been absolutely intransigent to do so in spite of this clear and undeniable trend. Beyond gross economics, their action and their continued momentum-driven obstinacy has resulted in a tragic human costs, as well. We're talking about Hawaii's vibrant working men and women here. How many have become needlessly disabled because of impeded access to timely and competent care?

HMA and the Hawaii Occupational Medical Society continue with our efforts to rectify this situation so that Hawaii's injured workers receive timely, competent care. What's more, when they get it, the overall costs actually go down, not up. We will continue to try to get the Legislature to wake up to this fact and do something about it. Until they do, Hawaii's workers will continue to suffer the results of their lack of concern. In the meantime, if you or anyone you know has had a problem with finding a doctor to care for your work or no-fault injury, please speak up. Call, write, or e-mail your representative and senator and tell them to correct this mistake.

Ron Kienitz, DO, is chairman of the Hawaii Medical Association workers compensation committee, president of the Hawaii Occupational Medical Association and medical director of Concentra Medical Centers.

Friday, July 24, 2009

New Transgenic Research Tool---Zinc Finger Nuclease Technology

ZFNs (Zinc Finger Nucleases) are engineered proteins that induce double strand breaks at specific sites in an organism's DNA. Scientists have successfully used this technology to generate transgenic Rats with heritable gene mutations without the need of using nuclear transfer or embryonic stem cells. Their study was published in July 24, 2009 issue of Science. This technology could be used to make disease state modes for research studies. It is early in time will tell if it will become a useful and broad technology. For more see this link.

Wednesday, July 22, 2009

Big Money Budget for Francis Collins-New NIH Director

New NIH Leader Backs Personalized Medicine

No one was surprised last month when the White House nominated world-famous geneticist Francis Collins for the top job at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The driving force behind NIH’s Human Genome Project for 15 years, Collins is experienced in managing large research projects and big budgets and in making friends on Capitol Hill.
In the year since he left NIH, he actively supported President Barack Obama’s election campaign and wrote a book on personalized medicine that reflects his belief in the power of molecular biology to shape medicine and the world. Collins has expressed disappointment that important genomic discoveries have not led to new life-saving therapies, and he will want to use his new position to change that.

For pharma, Collins’ offers prospects of increased emphasis at NIH on translational research and more collaboration in developing drugs for orphan and neglected diseases. Comparative effectiveness research, he says, should identify subpopulation responses to treatment and support personalized medicine.

Collins has been highly praised for bringing in the human genome project ahead of schedule and below budget; as NIH director he will need all his administrative skills to manage the vast NIH complex and shape how its disparate institutes dole out more than $25 billion in grants to research organizations and scientists. NIH staffers see him as likely to favor big, high-profile projects over the needs of individual researchers. An evangelical Christian, he also will face pressure to clarify how his personal faith can co-exist with support for evolution and science.
Collins takes over NIH at an enviable time. The agency gained some $10 billion in extra funds through the economic recovery legislation enacted earlier this year, providing a nice addition to the agency’s $30 billion budget. Although Congress is not likely to provide such largesse in the future, some increases are likely.Spurring Stem Cell Research A high-profile task for Collins is to implement recently finalized guidelines on human embryonic stem cell research (hESC), which NIH issued just as Collins’ nomination was announced. The new program calls for an NIH panel of scientists, ethicists and advocates to assess that all candidate stem cell lines meet ethical standards for government-funded research: that they are derived from leftover embryos created by in vitro fertilization, that donors understand their options and consent to research uses, and that there is no compensation to or pressure on donors to do so. NIH will establish a registry of all cell lines deemed eligible for federal funding, with an eye to reducing uncertainty and confusion in the research community.

The new rules were proposed last April after President Obama issued an executive order rescinding Bush administration restrictions on government-funded hESC studies. The new rule promises to vastly expand opportunities for research in this area, despite continued curbs on funding studies that use stem cells created solely for research purposes or cell lines derived through somatic cell nuclear transfer, a technique that many researchers consider highly promising. While life-saving medicines ultimately may emerge, a near-term benefit may be the development of new cellular assays for screening drug candidates and other methods useful in drug development.


Pfizer concealing reboxetine data, says IQWiG
By Gareth Macdonald, 15-Jun-2009 (excerpts below)

Germany’s IQWiG has accused US drugmaker Pfizer of “concealing data on the effect of a drug Edronax for the treatment of depression.”

Pfizer has “refused to provide a complete list of all published and unpublished trials on reboxetine.” on a controversial antidepresant to a German health group, The Institute for Quality and Efficacy in Health Care (IQWig).

Peter Sawicki, IQWiG director, said: “By concealing study data, the manufacturer is depriving patients and doctors of the opportunity to make an informed decision on different therapy options.”

Sawicki also said that: “deception through concealment is no trivial offence” adding that “in extreme cases, patients may even receive useless treatment if information is incomplete.” He went on to suggest that “publication bias, the selective release of only data that supports a development candidate, has been a growing problem in the drug industry for the last 20 years.”

For complete article-click here

Oldest IVF Recipient Mother Dies-Two Year Old IVF Children Orphans

Oldest woman to give birth dies, leaving twins

by Daniel Woolls, Associated PressJuly 15th, 2009

Maria del Carmen Bousada
A Spanish woman who deceived a U.S. fertility clinic about her age and become the oldest woman to give birth has died at 69, leaving behind 2-year-old twins, newspapers reported Wednesday. For more click link.

Thursday, July 16, 2009

Pfizer Loses Worker Compensation Case

Pfizer to pay workers' comp for exposure to organics

By Lee Howard Published in The Day on 7/16/2009

The Connecticut Appellate Court, in a decision that won't be officially released until July 21, has ruled in favor of a former Pfizer Inc. employee in a workers' compensation case.

Ronald C. Chappell of Groton, a former chemical operator in the fermentation department of Pfizer's one-time manufacturing facility in Groton, filed a workers' compensation claim in 2002, saying his exposure to organic molds and other materials - including blood meal and ground-up chicken parts - led to his asthma, which a doctor determined to be an occupational disease.

”In general, employers don't like to pay for occupational diseases,” said Carolyn P. Kelly, who represented Chappell along with lead attorney Matthew Shafner of the New London firm Suisman Shapiro, who estimated that more than half of these claims are contested.

Kelly said Chappell will likely get a lump-sum payment, plus continued compensation for out-of-pocket medical expenses. In addition, his insurer may be able to collect money it has paid for his asthma care in the past as well as going forward.

Kelly said Pfizer could further contest the claim by taking the case to the state Supreme Court, but she thought this step was unlikely. Chappell, throughout his seven-year workers' compensation effort, has received no money for his out-of-pocket asthma care, she added.
Pfizer and its co-defendant, the Wausau Insurance Co., had opposed the claim on technical grounds, including whether asthma in this case constituted an occupational disease. But Pfizer, in this phase of the case, admitted Chappell's asthma arose out of his employment in the fermentation department.

Pfizer was represented by Vernon attorney Erik S. Bartlett.

The appellate court said procedures used to clean tanks at the fermentation facility - where antibiotics were manufactured - exposed Chappell to airborne waste and residue. “(Chappell) did not wear protective respiratory gear during the cleaning procedure, nor was he required to do so by (Pfizer),” the court said in its findings of fact.

”There is no dispute that his exposure arose out of and in the course of his duties as a chemical operator or that it directly led to his asthma,” the court said. “(Chappell's) asthma constitutes an occupational disease because his employment as a chemical operator in (Pfizer's) fermentation department was more likely to cause this disease than would other kinds of employment under the same conditions.”

Chappell's request for workers' compensation had previously been approved by the workers' comp commissioner for the second district and by the workers' compensation review board.
An attempt to reach Chappell proved unsuccessful.

A Pfizer spokesman said the company had not seen the decision and had no comment on it.
Click here to see story at The Day

The Unethical Patent

Patenting life or genetic molecular entities involved with human medicine have profound negative effects on society in many ways. The patenting of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes involved in breast and overian cancer is a good example of the problems capitalistic ownership of "life" can bring to suffering patients.

Here is a story written from another blog:

Will breast cancer gene lawsuit end gene patenting?
Earlier this month, the American Civil Liberties Union joined the Association for Molecular Pathology, the American College of Medical Genetics, the Boston Women's Health Book Collective, and numerous other plaintiffs--including individual breast cancer patients--in filing a lawsuit against Myriad Genetics, the U.S. Patent Office, and the directors of the University of Utah Research Foundation. Myriad Genetics has patents in the U.S. for the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, the presence of which has been linked to an increased risk of breast or ovarian cancer. The suit alleges that such gene patenting is unconstitutional, in large part because "ease of access to genomic discoveries is crucial if basic research is to be expeditiously translated into clinical laboratory tests that benefit patients in the emerging era of personalized and predictive medicine," and such patents restrict the use of the genes.

The ACLU suit points out that:
Because of the patents, defendant Myriad has the right to prevent clinicians form independently looking at or interpreting a person's BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes to determine if the person is at a higher risk of breast and/or ovarian cancer. Because of the patents and because Myriad chooses not to license the patents broadly, women who fear they may be at an increased risk of breast and/or ovarian cancer are barred from having anyone look at their BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes or interpret them except for the patent holder. [...] Many women at risk cannot even be tested because they are uninsured and/or cannot afford the test offered by Myriad.

For more on this topic go to the author's blog site

Friday, July 10, 2009


UK scientists create human sperm for the first time

The announcement from the Institute, which is made up of Newcastle and Durham Universities and Newcastle National Health Service
Foundation, marked the first time human sperm had been created in a laboratory and threatened to reopen the fierce debate over embryo research. It was reported in the journal Stem Cells and Development.
Click here for entire story

Wednesday, July 8, 2009

Gibbs Makes Case for Lab Origin of Swin Flu

Virologist to make his case for lab origin of swine flu

By Peter Duveen

PETER’S NEW YORK, Wednesday, July 1, 2009--The scientist who made headlines in May by positing a laboratory origin for the swine flu that has swept the world will defend his theory in the scientific literature, Peter’s New York has learned. Dr. Adrian Gibbs, a Canberra, Australia-based virologist with more than 200 scientific publications to his credit, said that over the weekend he submitted his latest work on the swine flu to a prominent scientific journal, and is awaiting a response. Gibbs, 75, was part of a team that developed the antiviral drug Tamiflu.

In May of 2009, Dr. Adrian Gibbs of Canberra, Australia, shown here on Bloomberg TV, achieved notoriety for his theory that the new swine flu may have been the result of an error in the vaccine manufacturing process.
Back in April, when the first cases of swine flu were diagnosed in Mexico, Gibbs examined the genetic structure of the virus that had been posted on a public database. His analysis led him to speculate that the virus may have been the result of a laboratory error. He contacted the Geneva, Switzerland-based World Health Organization with his conjecture, and scientists there scrutinized his findings, concluding, however, that the virus was most likely a product of nature. In a series of email exchanges with Peter’s New York, Gibbs said he was not satisfied with the WHO’s critique, indicating that the basis for it was ambiguous. “The WHO stated that they had no evidence to support my suggestion,” Gibbs said. “They made a very fair statement. However the principle reason for my conclusion remains—that none of the genes of the new virus had been sampled/found/caused epidemics since at least 2000, despite probably coming from at least two different parents on two continents, where other strains had been sampled.” Gibbs said that might have been a coincidence, but the unusual placement of the virus on what what virologists call phylogenetic trees—a sort of schematic family history of the virus--also piqued his interest. On top of that, Gibbs observed that there was a lack of evidence that pig populations in North America, from which the virus is believed to have emerged, had been infected. Only the pigs on one farm in Canada have as yet been shown to have contracted the virus. It has been established, said Gibbs, that swine easily contract the new flu from humans, and spread it among themselves. The absence of infection in the North American swine, Gibbs noted, may be evidence that the swine had already contracted the disease and built up immunity, or that they were vaccinated against viruses that resembled the novel swine flu closely enough for them to have been protected against it. Gibbs said the one Canadian herd that came down with the novel swine flu had not been inoculated, and that the evidence therefore leans toward inoculation as the reason North American pigs are disease free. That, in turn, would support a theory, according to Gibbs, that "the virus in the vaccine may be the immediate progenitor of the new human virus. " Gibbs said he would have been more satisfied if scientists at the WHO had examined the lists of all the vaccines licensed for production in the United States and Mexico and determined that none of them harbored strains from which the swine flu could have descended. He said he had been unable to locate such lists to make the determination himself. Gibbs spells out fairly clearly how he thinks the new virus might have emerged due to a laboratory error. In manufacturing a vaccine, each of the viruses to be protected against must first be bred and then sterilized to prevent their further multiplication. When a subject is inoculated, the body reacts to the “killed” viral fragments and produces antibodies that provide protection against the live virus. Gibbs said that if the sterilization process was not carried out properly, pigs could end up being given live viruses, and instead of being protected, would contract the disease. The live viruses would then have a chance to multiply and exchange genetic material within the infected pig in a process known as reassortment, and a new virus could emerge and spread to humans as a “swine flu.” The study of viruses is overlaid with a complex nomenclature and labyrinthine concepts and arguments in the field of genetics that are unfamiliar to the average layman. But the implications are far reaching, a fact not lost on the general public or on Gibbs. Early this year, the Deerfield, Ill. based drug firm Baxter International Inc. shipped experimental vaccines for human flu that were contaminated with the bird flu. The cocktail of influenzas, if it had not been discovered by alert laboratory specialists in the Czech Republic in February, could have been administered to subjects, after which, some experts feared, the two viruses could have undergone reassortment, producing a new virus that possessed the lethality of bird flu and the communicability of human flu. Bird flu is a deadly disease that kills close to half its victims, but resists spread from human to human. Human flu, on the other hand, is far more benign, but is easily spread through human contact. A recombined virus with the characteristics of each of the two could conceivably wipe out almost half the world’s population. Gibbs steers clear of elaborate intrigues that some believe are behind the new flu’s emergence. “Whenever I’ve thought something has resulted from a conspiracy, it usually turns out to be from a ‘cock-up,’” he said. The importance of establishing whether or not the flu emerged from a laboratory, he emphasized, is “to try to avoid a recurrence.” He did admit, however, that there was a definite risk to the public of escaping pathogens held in government and private facilities. “There are many historical precedents that are conveniently forgotten,” said Gibbs. “The recent Baxter incident seems to have been one.” “The reappearance in 1977 of the H1N1 (virus) last seen in 1950 after a period of non-evolution,” which he speculated could represent “suspended animation in a freezer,” was another instance in which pathogens might have escaped from a laboratory. Gibbs also cited the escape of foot-and-mouth disease from a British government laboratory facility in 2007. Asked if the resurrection of the viral agent for the deadly 1918 “Spanish” flu, which was reconstituted in 2005 by scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for research purposes, was a safe proposition, he answered, “No, definitely not.” “It’s exactly the same principle as should apply to all high security labs,” said Gibbs. “If it ain’t ‘there’ it can’t get out, whereas if it is, then there is always the possibility, however remote, that it might get out.” The 1918 flu, which spread to every corner of the globe in the two years immediately following World War I, had a rate of lethality some 30 to 50 times greater than other strains of human flu. Tens of millions of people died in the pandemic worldwide. While some aspects of his presentation have been updated, Gibbs said his basic premise remains unchanged, and has, in fact, been reinforced by recent additions to the scientific literature. And while the WHO gave the appearance of having put the final nail in the coffin of Gibbs’s theory, in a rare show of scientific honesty for a public institution, it affixed the lid rather loosely, leaving itself room to revisit Gibbs’s hypothesis once it is published. In the mid-May press conference in which the WHO addressed Gibbs’s analysis, which by that time has spread far and wide throughout the mainstream media, Assistant Director Keiji Fukuda praised the virologist who had contributed to the field for more than fifty years of professional work, calling Gibbs “a credible scientist, a credible virologist.” In answer to a reporter’s question about whether Gibbs’s theory had been refuted, Fukuda said: “I think that it is fair to say that in the world of science, nothing is ever totally excluded, nothing is ever ended.” On the issue of whether Gibbs’s theory may actually prove true or not, he said: “We feel very comfortable based on the analyses which have been done, based on the rigor in which it has been looked at, that we are not dealing with a laboratory-created virus. However, I do not expect that the debate itself will stop.” The world awaits Gibbs’s response.

Tuesday, July 7, 2009

Money Talks

Money and Influence

"We live by the Golden Rule. Those who have the gold make the rules." B. Bavasi

The following is from Freshlife Inc. July 2, 2009, Issue 128, volume 10

- do you wonder how it’s possible for ideas that are opposed by a vast majority of Americans to become the law of the land – or at least the policy of the federal government? What ever happened to democracy, and how did we become a “corporatocracy”. It’s simple, really - money talks.

These are the amounts spent by the corporations listed. However, most of these corporations also contract out to private lobbying firms, so the amounts you see here are probably NOT the total amounts spent on lobbying in Q1-2009. For example, Monsanto spent $2,094,000 for its in house lobbying but then contracted out to Arent Fox LLP; Lesher, Russell & Barron, Inc. ($60,000); Ogilvy Government Relations ($60,000); Parven Pomper Strategies ($40,000); Sidley Austin LLP; TCH Group, LLC ($50,000); The Nickles Group, LLC ($63,000); The Washington Tax Group, LLC ($40,000); and Troutman Sanders Public Affairs Group ($30,000) - for a total of $2,437,000 in first quarter 2009. That’s right – nearly 2 million dollars in 3 months spent convincing our legislators that GMOs (and other Monsanto profit-making ideas) are a good idea.

Numbered by most dollars spent and separated by category – this is the money that poured into Washington during January, February and March of this year. (2009)

Health Care, Health Insurance, & Pharmaceuticals3.

Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America: $6,910,0006. Pfizer, Inc: $6,140,00012. American Medical Association: $4,240,00018. American Hospital Association: $3,580,00019. Eli Lilly and Company: $3,440,00037. America's Health Insurance Plans, Inc: $2,030,00039. CVS Caremark Inc: $2,005,00047. Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association: $1,800,00049. GlaxoSmithKline: $1,780,00063. Merck & Co: $1,500,00065. United Health Group, Inc: $1,500,00069. Sanofi-Aventis U.S. Inc: $1,460,00076. Novartis: $1,347,13487. Abbott Laboratories: $1,260,00089. Astrazeneca Pharmaceuticals, LP: $1,250,00092. Medtronic, Inc: $1,238,000


Exxon Mobil: $9,320,0004. Chevron U.S.A. Inc: $6,800,0007. Conoco Phillips: $5,980,93516. BP America, Inc: $3,610,00020. Marathon Oil Corporation: $3,380,00045. American Petroleum Institute: $1,810,000


Lockheed Martin Corporation: $6,380,00011. General Electric Company: $4,540,00028. Northrop Grumman Corporation: $2,570,00030. Boeing Company: $2,410,0051. Honeywell International: $1,760,00073. Raytheon Company: $1,360,000


AT&T Services, Inc: $5,134,87314. Verizon (excluding Verizon Wireless): $3,760,00021. National Cable and Telecommunications Association: $3,370,00023. Comcast Corporation: $2,760,00068. Motorola, Inc: $1,470,000


General Motors: $2,800,00027. United Services Automobile Association: $2,590,24452. Ford Motor Company: $1,750,00084. Toyota Motor North America: $1,290,00086. Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers: $1,264,400


Financial Services Roundtable: $2,260,00033. Prudential Financial, Inc: $2,180,00041. American Bankers Association: $1,890,00061. Visa, Inc: $1,540,00074. Investment Company Institute: $1,359,91775. Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association: $1,350,00082. J.P. Morgan Chase Bank, N.A.: $1,310,00090. Citigroup Management Corp: $1,250,00090. Credit Union National Association: $1,250,000


Monsanto: $2,094,00040. Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO): $1,920,00044. Bayer Corporation: $1,843,672


Association of American Railroads: $2,759,54554. Union Pacific Corporation: $1,717,10871. BNSF Railway: $1,400,000

Life Insurance42.

American Council of Life Insurers: $1,867,07544. New York Life Insurance Company: $1,840,00064. State Farm Insurance: $1,500,00093. The Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company: $1,237,000


Chamber of Commerce of the U.S.A.: $9,996,0008. National Association of Realtors: $5,727,0009. U.S. Chamber Institute for Legal Reform: $5,480,00013. AARP: $4,090,00015. Southern Company: $3,650,00017. Altria Client Services Inc: $3,580,00025. Amgen, Inc: $2,750,00026. National Association of Broadcasters: $2,600,00029. Edison Electric Institute: $2,550,00031. Fedex Corporation: $2,370,00034. Textron, Inc.: $2,140,00035. General Dynamics Corp: $2,101,94538. International Business Machines (IBM): $2,030,00043. United Technologies Corporation: $1,860,00046. Recording Industry Association of America: $1,810,00048. CTIA-The Wireless Association: $1,790,00050. Time Warner Inc. $1,780,00053. The Dow Chemical Company: $1,735,00055. American Electric Power Company: $1,716,91356. Microsoft Corporation: $1,650,00057. Qualcomm, Incorporated: $1,620,00058. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc: $1,600,00059. L-3 Communications: $1,580,00060. Exelon Business Services, LLC: $1,540,00062. Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc: $1,530,00066. Norfolk Southern Corporation: $1,485,02667. Koch Companies Public Sector LLC: $1,480,00070. American Airlines: $1,450,00072. Oracle Corporation: $1,390,00077. Air Transport Association of America, Inc.: $1,340,00078. Disney Worldwide Services, Inc.: $1,330,00079. Sepracor, Inc: $1,324,15780. National Association of Home Builders: $1,320,00081. UPS: $1,316,42683. Siemens Corporation: $1,300,00085. Duke Energy Corporation: $1,282,77094. Distilled Spirits Council of the U.S., Inc: $1,230,00095. Business Roundtable: $1,220,00096. Wellpoint, Inc: $1,220,00097. American Wind Energy Association: $1,212,50498. F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd: $1,206,42799. National Rural Electric Cooperative Association: $1,200,00099. CBS Corporation: $1,200,000

reference: Freshlife Inc. July 2, 2009, Issue 128, volume 10